Reciprocity is a universal concept in international law and in international relations that encourages the parties to adhere to contractual agreements. It is also binding, as it allows the possibility of sanctions under the international law. However, within the framework of reciprocal treatment of the minorities in Greece and Turkey, the concept was misconstrued and, eventually, misused by the respective governments. In both of these states, reciprocity had been interpreted as a legitimate basis for retaliation against its own citizens for policies of another sovereign state. Clearly, reciprocity, when applied to the situation of minorities in Greece and Turkey, cannot be treated by both governments as means of reprisal, but instead should be a source of responsibility towards the respective minority that resides in each of the states and constitutes part of the society.

Samim Akgönül

GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Reciprocity and its Application in International Law
Samim Akgönül

PART ONE Sources and Meanings
1 Sources of Reciprocity: Treaty of Lausanne
Samim Akgönül
2 Reciprocity in Turco-Greek Relations: The Case of Minorities
Baskın Oran
3 Reciprocity in the National Paradigm
Herkül Millas

PART TWO Historical and Legal Perspectives
4 Reciprocity or International Intervention? Greek and Turkish Minority Policy, 1923-1930
Dimitris Kamouzis
5 Reciprocity as a Regulatory Pattern for the Treatment of Greece’s Turkish/Muslim Minority
Konstantinos Tsitselikis
6 The “Internalization” of Reciprocity By Many Members of Greek-Orthodox and Turkish-Muslim Minorities: How Can it be Explained? Some Initial Reflections
Dimostenis Yağcıoğlu

PART THREE Application
7 The Concept of Reciprocity and its Significance for the Political Organisation of the Muslim Minority in Greece
Vemund Aarbakke
8 A Victim of Reciprocity: The Greek Patriarchate of Istanbul
Elçin Macar
9 Reciprocity and Minority Religious Institutions in Greece and Turkey
Samim Akgönül